2021 Workshop:2021 Eclipses

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Progress in understanding solar eclipse effects on geospace

Location, Date/Time and Duration

1.5-2 hours

Conveners

Shunrong Zhang
Wenbin Wang
Michael Hartinger

Workshop Categories

Altitudes: IT - Latitudes: global - Inst/Model: radar - Other: radio and geomagnetic observations

Format of the Workshop

Short Presentations

Estimated attendance

50

Requested Specific Days

later part of the week is preferred

Special technology requests

Justification

This session will address science questions related to how the upper atmosphere system responds to the rapid reduction and recovery of solar irradiation during solar eclipses. Previous studies show that the transient solar irradiation variations during eclipses lead to changes in not only ionospheric photochemistry but also the energetics and dynamics in the upper atmosphere, all of which are fundamental CEDAR themes. Some of the challenging science and observational questions include eclipse caused atmospheric and ionospheric waves, photoelectron variations, hemispheric conjugate effects, and polar region magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling. The session will address these and other relevant questions and discuss coordinated community observational and analysis plans. This session will address CEDAR Strategic Thrust #2: Explore Exchange Processes at Interfaces and Boundaries (Characterize sources and sinks internally and externally to the SAIR and their possible variations due to the coupling and complexity of the Sun-Earth system).

Description

Since the Great American Eclipse on August 21, 2017, the eclipse-induced ionosphere-thermosphere (I-T) variations have drawn renewed community interest. These variations are caused by a sudden reduction in solar irradiation (and therefore in photo-ionization and photo-absorption rates) as the Moon shadow sweeps through the Earth's atmosphere at a supersonic speed. New insights into the unique eclipse effects on the geospace system through commonly known fundamental coupling processes have been achieved. These effects include, to list a few, excitation of ionospheric bow waves and other waves, thermospheric waves, ionospheric density variations associated with irregular EUV sources on the solar disk, electrodynamic disturbances and eclipse-time tidal wave modulation at low and equatorial latitudes, ionospheric disturbances in the conjugate hemisphere, etc. In 2021, two solar eclipses will occur in the Arctic and Antarctic regions during polar summers. These will provide rare opportunities for the community to study geospace responses to the polar eclipses in a comparative sense. We invite the community members to [1] report new progress in understanding geospace disturbances during recent and past solar eclipse events (especially in high latitudes), and [2] discuss and coordinate observational and modeling efforts for the forthcoming polar eclipses: June 10, 2021 and December 4, 2021.

Workshop Agenda (MDT; +2 hr =EDT; +6hr = UTC)

--13:00--13:!0 Tong Dang, M-I-T simulation

--13:10--13:20 Joe Huba, SAMI3 simulation

--13:20--13:30 Saurav Aryal, GOLD results for June 10 and other eclipses

--13: 30-13:40 Xueling Shi, SuperDARN

--13::40-13:50 Ingemar Haggstrom. EISCAT results for the June 10 eclipse

--13:50-14:00 Larisa Goncharenko: Millstone Hill ISR

--14:00-14:10 Shunrong Zhang Ionospheric disturbances in GNSS TEC and MH ISR data]

--13:10-14:20 Kristina Collins, HamSci

--14:20-14:30 Sebastijan Mrak, Solar EUV effects

--14:30-14:40 Ningchao Wang, SABER analysis

--14:40-14:50 Michael Hartinger, Polar eclipses 2021

---14:50-15:00 Discussion

Discussions

Chatbox log

2021 Eclipses Shunrong Zhang June 24 1:00pm Zoom Chat Notes


15:12:33 From Sebastijan Mrak to Everyone : What is the total change in conductances?
15:12:40 From Mike Ruohoniemi to Everyone : How do we ask questions, here in chat or by an app?
15:12:44 From Abd El Aziz Hussein to Everyone : When the aurora oval is disturbed, was it clear if it expanded or contracted ? 
15:12:52 From Wenbin Wang to Everyone : in Chat
15:13:00 From Richard Eastes to Everyone : How persistent are the effects of the eclipse
15:13:54 From Mike Ruohoniemi to Everyone : Has a clear signature of eclipse been observed to date in Mag phenomena such as FAC?
15:15:25 From Kristina Collins to Shun-Rong Zhang(Direct Message) : Is this session being recorded?
15:15:57 From Shun-Rong Zhang to Kristina Collins(Direct Message) : not recorded
15:23:17 From Tong Dang to Everyone : Hi Sebastian, the ionospheric conductance has a depletion of around 30%-40% in our simulation, depending on what area you are looking at.
15:23:18 From Philip J Erickson to Everyone : Millstone Hill will be observing during Dec 2021 ecliipse
15:24:10 From Larisa Goncharenko to Everyone : @Joe - how large would be Te decrease over Millstone at lower alt, like 200-400km?
15:24:17 From Sebastijan Mrak to Everyone : @Tong, do you have an estimate how fast the density/conductance responds to the changing EUV flux?
15:25:03 From Tong Dang to Everyone : Hi And, our simulation did not show very clear latitude changes, but give disturbances on the aurora intensity.
15:26:35 From Richard Eastes to Everyone : Any indication of whether the radiation belts would be affected.
15:27:01 From Tong Dang to Everyone : Hi Richard, the eclipse has a really long-lasting changes on the M-I coupling system. The magnetosphere are oscillated, and the magnetosphere and FAC,CPCP show a oscillation even many hours after the solar eclipse.
15:29:57 From Tong Dang to Everyone : Hi Mike, we haven’t got observational features yet. We want to look at features from CPCP, FAC, and dst/Sym-H indexes next.
15:32:21 From Mani Sivakandan to Everyone : Hi Tong, On 10 June 2021, there was a particle precipitation prior to the solar eclipse. In that case how can we separate the geomagnetic disturbances from solar eclipse effect?
15:33:11 From Tong Dang to Everyone : @Sebastijan, the large-scale TEC depletion has a quick response to the solar eclipse. The aurora changes are a little bit more complicated. We can examine the exact response to EUV flux later.
15:34:18 From Jens Oberheide to Everyone : @Saurav: Why did TIEGCM underestimate the response? Is this a resolution issue?
15:34:38 From Tong Dang to Everyone : @Abd El Aziz Hussein, sorry for the typo of the mis-spelling.^^
15:36:36 From Tong Dang to Everyone : @Mani, we have conducted two simulations: one with solar eclipse, and the other one without the eclipse. And the differences between them illustrate the effect from the solar eclipse.
15:37:11 From Mani Sivakandan to Everyone : Thank you
15:47:39 From Xian Lu to Everyone : @Xueling, very interesting results. You may show this and I missed. What is the period of the TIDs?
15:49:02 From Tong Dang to Everyone : @Rechard, if the above radiation belt question is for my talk, yes, we have indeed seen some changes in the plasmasphere and inner magnetosphere, but I haven’t examined that in very detail. It still needs some further explorations. Very interesting comment!
15:49:48 From Xueling Shi to Everyone : @Xian Lu Sorry I forgot to mention it. The period of the TID in SuperDARN observations is a bit longer than 1 hour.
15:50:13 From Xian Lu to Everyone : Ok, thanks.
15:53:16 From Larisa Goncharenko to Everyone : @Ingemar - how large was Te variation over Tromso?
15:59:11 From Jackson Jandreau to Everyone : Not my area of expertise so this is perhaps a naïve question. If we were to assume that the Te changing instantly is physically correct, why would that not occur at the central time of the eclipse? It appeared to be offset by some time
16:03:30 From Richard Eastes to Everyone : @Tong, I had the same question for both you and Joe (who responded directly). GOLD observes the radiation belts as a source of background signal, which we measure separately (and coarsely) to subtract it from our image data. If more details are readily accessible, they would be of interest. Thanks for the response, Richard
16:06:39 From Tong Dang to Everyone : @Rechard, thanks very much for your information. We’ll make a detailed examine soon.
16:07:18 From Xian Lu to Everyone : @ Shunrong, what would be the highest frequency of TIDs that can be seen from GNSS TEC data?
16:09:00 From Bill Rideout to Everyone : The plasma line measurements are taken once per minute, which sets the highest frequency visible.
16:10:44 From Anthea Coster to Everyone : Shunrong - You are at dawn.  Will a 2 hour window for the background work?
16:11:09 From Xian Lu to Everyone : Thank you, Bill. The data downloadable from the website seems to be with the cadence of 5 min.
16:11:22 From Bill Rideout to Everyone : The GNSS TEC / Differential TEC data is taken at a 30 second cadence.
16:11:52 From Larisa Goncharenko to Everyone : @Xian - Bill was talking about plasma line data, it’s a radar data, not GNSS
16:12:16 From Anthea Coster to Everyone : There are two products on madrigal - one is a 5 min cadence.  One has a 20-30 sec cadence - the los files (or line of sight)
16:12:17 From Xian Lu to Everyone : Oh, I see. Thank you for clarification, Larisa.
16:12:51 From Larisa Goncharenko to Everyone : @Xian: and later also talked about GNSS :)
16:13:23 From Bill Rideout to Everyone : Shunrong uses the line of sight data to calculate the differential TEC.
16:13:23 From Mike Hartinger (he/him) to Shun-Rong Zhang(Direct Message) : Hi Shunrong, you just passed 15 minutes
16:13:43 From Xian Lu to Everyone : I see. Thank you all for the information.
16:16:00 From Jia Yue to Everyone : @Shunrong, what do you mean "eclipse induced" aurora?
16:20:28 From Shun-Rong Zhang to Mike Hartinger (he/him)(Direct Message) : Dang Tong simulated the auroral induced by the eclipse because of the conductivity changes which can drive M-I coupling changes, including enhanced precipitation
16:22:18 From Shun-Rong Zhang to Mike Hartinger (he/him)(Direct Message) : sorry responded to wrong person
16:22:34 From Shun-Rong Zhang to Everyone : Jia: Dang Tong simulated the auroral induced by the eclipse because of the conductivity changes which can drive M-I coupling changes, including enhanced precipitation
16:24:44 From Jia Yue to Everyone : @Shunrong, thanks.
16:27:39 From Saurav Aryal to Everyone : @Larissa Could the delayed response to Ne at higher altitude potentially be because of downwelling of O? It is interesting the peak O/N2 change also has similar delay in GOLD observations
16:29:15 From Larisa Goncharenko to Everyone : @Saurav: delayed response in the topside Ne is typical, I think, and it’s combination of transport effects and a change in the composition
16:29:47 From Saurav Aryal to Everyone : @Larissa, Thanks!
16:29:49 From Kristina Collins to Everyone : June 2021 Arctic Eclipse Festival campaign page: https://hamsci.org/june-2021-eclipse-festival-frequency-measurement
December 2021 Antarctic Eclipse Festival campaign page: https://hamsci.org/december-2021-eclipse-festival-frequency-measurement
General primer on HamSCI, Festivals of Freq. Measurement and PSWS: https://eos.org/features/ham-radio-forms-a-planet-sized-space-weather-sensor-network
WWV Centennial Festival of Frequency Measurement: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9377452
KiwiSDR map: rx.linkfanel.net
Mailing list for Eclipse Festivals: http://eclipse-festival.googlegroups.com/

Upcoming AGU Sessions: 
SA011 - Geospace System Response During Solar Eclipses: https://agu.confex.com/agu/fm21/prelim.cgi/Session/118541
SA020 - The MacGyver Session: The Place for Novel, Exciting, Self-Made, Hacked, or Improved Sensors and Software Solutions to Understand Space Weather: https://agu.confex.com/agu/fm21/prelim.cgi/Session/125011
16:30:15 From Larisa Goncharenko to Everyone : @Saurav: and I think with great GOLD data we can address and sort out the role of O change
16:35:33 From Saurav Aryal to Everyone : @Larissa: At GOLD's observing altitude (~150 km) most of the composition change (O/N2) seems to be driven by change in O as the brightness change in O emission is much more significant than depletion in N2 emission
16:36:38 From Shun-Rong Zhang to Everyone : @Anthea that 2 hour window was used only for estimating the magnitude of eclipse effect. For TIDs, I used 1-hour windows.
17:05:34 From Mike Hartinger (he/him) to Everyone : If you’re interested in joining 4 Dec 2021 eclipse campaign planning discussions, fill out your contact information here: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/13Bpv_CRh3w3Z6zb5GQRy6LJSRyXegp0GCZwHO9-SdTQ/edit#gid=0

Also feel free to edit this google doc summary with information about datasets: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1fS3serK15khtKglZsBF0Ngg-PTYN_BznXjdVtPoSC7g/edit?usp=sharing

Email me (mdhartin1@gmail.com) with any questions.
17:11:00 From Kristina Collins to Everyone : Google Map: https://www.google.com/maps/d/edit?mid=1NKub9rLZ8E5-70Zy1e35n_ebAFB_bV2j&usp=sharing
17:12:42 From Heidi Allen to Shun-Rong Zhang(Direct Message) : Hello Shun-Ron I took Michellles place as host and need to speak with you when this event is over about the chat comments ok? So dont leave the room
17:15:35 From María Graciela Molina to Everyone : The deadline for all submissions is Wednesday, 4 August 2021
17:15:39 From María Graciela Molina to Everyone : for AGU
17:17:43 From Kristina Collins to Everyone : Thanks!
17:17:48 From Mike Hartinger (he/him) to Everyone : Thanks all!
17:17:53 From Tong Dang to Everyone : Thanks!
17:17:53 From María Graciela Molina to Everyone : thanks
17:17:54 From Xueling Shi to Everyone : Thank you!
17:18:02 From Saurav Aryal to Everyone : Thanks!
17:18:24 From Sovit Khadka to Everyone : Excellent!


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