Instruments:ehp

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Estimated Hemispheric Power from NOAA and DMSP Satellites

Contents


NOAA

Contact Persons

Web Pages

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The NOAA Hemispheric Power Index was provided by the Space Environment Center, Boulder CO via the CEDAR Database.

Notes

(NOTE 07/14/06: NOAA-14 data was completely revised.) (NOTE 10/11/07: Added the NOAA-12 and NOAA-14 in-flight analysis data between 05191-06277. This data should be used with caution.)

DMSP

Contact Persons

Web Pages

NOTES

  • 12/10/02: 1999 was replaced.
  • 06/14/05: All years were replaced for F11-15 calibrations and F8-15 sensor degradations.
  • 05/04/06: After transferring to another computer in June 2005, the DMSP data sets were found to be from the old (pre-2004) calibrations. DMSP-F16 was completely revised on 2 May 2006.
  • 07/27/06: The DMSP data is now correct on the website at. The CEDAR DB also contains the May 2006 revision of DMSP-F16 data, and the July 2006 revision of NOAA-18 data. The NOAA-12 and 14 in-flight analysis data is not in the DB.)

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The Air Force Research Laboratory Hemispheric Power Index was provided by the USAF Research Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA via the CEDAR Database. (Please send a courtesy copy or reference to any publications using the hemispheric power index to Dr. Rich.)

NOAA and DMSP Intersatellite Adjusted Hemispheric Power

Contact Person

Web Sites

  • VSTO Data Portal for data
    • click on the Data tab at the top
    • select 'Start by Instrument'
    • Filter by Physical Doman select CEDAR
    • Click the check box next to 'Show Instrument Code' and click 'Reload'
    • Select the radio button next to '175 - Estimated Hemispheric Power' and click 'Next'
    • Make date selections and parameter selections if you desire.

NOTES

  • 11/30/05: The adjusted NOAA and DMSP data and the hourly composite data from 1978-2004 use calibrations found in November 2004 which will be updated.
  • 05/04/06: Draft documentation on the intersatellite adjustments added in the form of three .pdf files of the text, tables, and figures were made available.
  • 07/27/06: Revised documentation on the intersatellite adjustments in 1 .pdf file replaced the earlier versions.
  • 11/10/06: Draft-V3 of NCAR Tech Report with revised ion Hp baseline fitting from 08/31/06 and revised intersatellite adjusted data sets now in DB.
  • 12/05/06: Draft-V4 of NCAR Tech Report as .pdf (final?)
  • Oct 2007: Adjusted NOAA and DMSP data with 24 satellites including MetOp-02
  • Feb 2008: JGR paper on Hp seasonal, Kp, Vsw/Bz and solar flux variations in press

References

(Data Sets - original May 2005, revised Nov 2006, October 2007; NCAR Tech Report; JGR paper; JASTP paper)

  • Emery, B. A., D. S. Evans, M. S. Greer, E. Holeman, K. Kadinsky-Cade, F. J. Rich and W. Xu, (2006), NOAA and DMSP Intersatellite Adjusted Hemispheric Power Data Sets, Main_Page and Instruments:ehp, Coupling, Energetics and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) Database at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, Colorado, USA, Oct 2007 (earlier versions of the data sets are May 2005, Oct 2006)
  • Emery, B. A., D. S. Evans, M. S. Greer, E. Holeman, K. Kadinsky-Cade, F. J. Rich and W. Xu (2006), The low energy auroral electron and ion hemispheric power after NOAA and DMSP intersatellite adjustments, NCAR Scientific and Technical Report, TN-470+STRSTR#470 (http://cedarweb.hao.ucar.edu/wiki/index.php/Media:Str470.pdf in the CEDAR Database or available through the NCAR library at http://library.ucar.edu).
    • .pdf of tables of satellite dates, orbital characteristics and fitting parameters revised from STR470.
  • Emery, B. A., V. Coumans, D. S. Evans, G. A. Germany, M. S. Greer, E. Holeman, K. Kadinsky-Cade, F. J. Rich and W. Xu (2008), Seasonal, Kp, solar wind, and solar flux variations in long-term single-pass satellite estimates of electron and ion auroral hemispheric power, J. Geophys. Res., 113, A06311, doi: 10.1029/2007JA012866.
  • Emery, B. A., I. G. Richardson, D. S. Evans, and F. J. Rich (2009), Solar wind structure sources and periodicities of auroral electron power over three solar cycles, J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys., 70, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2008.08.005

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The original National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Hemispheric Power data were provided by the Space Environment Center, Boulder CO and the original Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Hemispheric Power data were provided by the United States Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Hanscom AFB, MA via the CEDAR Database. The intersatellite adjusted revisions of these data and the hourly composite electron and ion hemispheric power were based on work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0208145. The CEDAR Database is also supported by the National Science Foundation.

Any opinions, findings, and conclusions expressed in the material are those of the author (B. Emery) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

If recent summary plots are not available, the data can be obtained via the VSTO Data Portal

  • Click on the 'Data' tab at the top of the page
  • Click on 'Start by Instrument'
  • From the 'Filter by Physical Domain' pull down list select 'CEDAR'
  • Check the box next to 'Show Instrument Code' and click 'Reload'
  • Check the bubble next to '175 - Estimated Hemispheric Power' and click 'Next'
  • Continue on with your date selection and click 'Next'
  • Be sure to also get 'INFO' type of data for the definitions of the parameter codes and for geophysical units.

Plots are for every 60 days of hemispheric power estimates from normalized NOAA (kindat=31021, URL file=ehp781102a), DMSP (kindat=31012, URL file=ehp830101a), intersatellite adjusted electron hemispheric power (Hpe) DMSP and NOAA (also Hpt and Hpi for SEM-2) (kindat=31100, URL file=ehp781102c), and intersatellite hourly composite Hpe from 1978 and Hpi from 1998 (kindat=31201, URL file=ehp781102b). All are available when clicking on 'All data', but differentiated by their URL. To get a description of the parameter codes and geophysical units, change in the URL line 'TAB' to 'INFO'.

Data Description

The total (Hpt) or electron (Hpe) hemispheric power input is computed from NOAA/TIROS and DMSP satellite measurements of high latitude precipitating energy flux carried by ions and electons with energies up to 20 keV. NOAA SEM-1 instruments observed between 300 eV and 20 keV, NOAA SEM-2 between 50 eV and 20 keV, while DMSP SSJ4 and SSJ5 instruments observe between 32 eV and 30.18 keV. However, the electron hemispheric power from DMSP is estimated using only the energy channels from 32 eV to 20.62 keV to be consistent with the estimates from NOAA TED instruments. The contribution to the electron hemispheric power from energies between 50-300 eV is usually less than one percent. The contribution to Hpe between 20-30 keV is about 5% of Hpe(<30 keV), rising to ~12% for Kp=0, but this is not included in the DMSP Hpe(<20 keV).

The SEM-2 instrument started with NOAA-15 in 1998, when the ion hemispheric power (Hpi) was calculated from the difference between the total and electron hemispheric powers (i.e., Hpi=Hpt-Hpe). Hpi is ~7% of Hpt, rising to 15% for Kp=0. Ions between 20-30 keV have been estimated to be between 20% (Kp=0) and 40% (Kp=5) of Hpi (<20 keV) using DMSP satellites [Emery et al., STR470, 2006]. Ions between 30-240 keV are estimated to be ~1% (Kp=0), ~10% (Kp=1), 50% (Kp=3), 100% (Kp>=4) of Hpi (<20 keV) [Fang et al., 2007].

The NOAA total hemispheric power estimates have been calibrated against standards set by the TIROS-N and NOAA-12 satellites. Calibrations are set in the first 6 months of operation and are applied solely to Hpt estimates. They are NOT part of the correction factor, but are applied later to both hemispheres. The hemispheric estimates from the NOAA satellites starting with the NOAA-12 standard in 1991 are about 75% higher than the 'intersatellite adjusted' estimates. The European MetOp-02 satellite carries NOAA SEM-2 instrumentation, and so is analyzed as a NOAA SEM-2 satellite.

The DMSP low energy flux is calculated for electrons only with energies between 32 eV and 20.62 keV, specifically excluding the energy level at 30.18 keV. Ions are measured, but the hemispheric power from them is not calculated routinely and so is not included. The DMSP satellites undergo a rigorous pre and post-calibration process, where the sensor degradations are tracked using the South Atlantic Anomaly each year of operation.

The NOAA and DMSP satellite orbits are sun synchronous around 850 km altitude. Times given are the center of the polar pass used to make the estimate where a typical polar pass takes about 25 minutes. Often there are two satellites operating simultaneously providing coverage at 30 to 60 minute intervals between auroral latitude crossings. The energy flux observations made during a single pass over the polar regions (above about 45 degrees of magnetic latitude) are used to estimate the total precipitating power input to a single hemisphere at that time. This power index was devised by David Evans for the NOAA/TIROS satellites, and adapted for the DMSP satellites by Frederick Rich and William Denig.

DMSP estimates were added to the CEDAR Database in 2000, at which time the NOAA estimates were redone using the original data to add a quality code correction factor giving the multiplicative factor used to turn each estimate from a single pass to the hemispheric average. The numbers reported are the hemispheric estimates after the multiplicative factor, which is based on average patterns as a function of MLT, have already been applied to each satellite pass. Estimates with factors larger than 2 should be ignored, but have been included for completeness with the original data.

The DMSP data were revised in late 2004 to account for sensor degradations in F8-F15 and for re-calibrations for F11-F15. These data were compared to similar NOAA data and intersatellite adjustment 'corrections' were made within a factor of two in the record type 31100 (Emery et al., 2006, 2007). Sunlight contamination that could be over 150 GW was also removed for DMSP-F09 and F10 estimates in the southern Southern summer hemisphere. Hourly composite estimates of the electron (Hpe) and ion hemispheric power (Hpi) in each hemisphere are provided in record type 31201 (in Nov 2006; Hpe only in record type 31200 in June 2005) as average, median and standard deviations using all good (no multiplicative factors greater than 2) intersatellite adjusted data.

Descriptions of this power parameter may be found in

  • Emery, B. A., D. S. Evans, M. S. Greer, E. Holeman, K. Kadinsky-Cade, F. J. Rich and W. Xu, The low energy auroral electron and ion hemispheric power after NOAA and DMSP intersatellite adjustments, NCAR Scientific and Technical Report, STR#470, 2006. .pdf text, tables, figures, and 88 appendix figures of Final STR (12/19/06)
  • .pdf of tables of satellite dates, orbital characteristics and fitting parameters revised from STR470.
  • Emery, B. A., V. Coumans, D. S. Evans, G. A. Germany, M. S. Greer, E. Holeman, K. Kadinsky-Cade, F. J. Rich and W. Xu, Seasonal, Kp, solar wind, and solar flux variations in long-term single pass satellite estimates of electron and ion auroral hemispheric power, J. Geophys. Res., 113, ?, doi: 10.1029/2007JA012866, in press, 2008, .pdf of article.
  • D. S. Evans, Global Statistical Patterns of Auroral Phenomena, Proceedings of the Symposium on Quantitative Modeling of Magnetospheric-Ionospheric Coupling Processes, pp. 325-330, editors Y. Kamide and R. A. Wolf, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kyoto, 1987.
  • Fang, X., M. W. Liemohn, J. U. Kozyra, D. S. Evans, A. D. DeJong and B. A. Emery, Global 30-240 keV proton precipitation in the 17-18 April 2002 geomagnetic storms: 1. Patterns, J. Geophys. Res., 112, A05301, doi: 10.1029/2006JA011867, 2007.
  • J. C. Foster, J. M. Holt, R. G. Musgrove and D. S. Evans, Ionospheric Convection Associated with Discrete Levels of Particle Precipitation, Geophysical Research Letters, 13, 656-659, 1986.
  • T. Fuller-Rowell and D. S. Evans, Height-Integrated Pedersen and Hall Conductivity Patterns Inferred from the TIROS-NOAA Satellite Data, Journal of Geophysical Research, 92, 7606-7618, 1987.

Summary Plots of Average Composite Hourly SH Hpe and Hpi

Go to the Contact Info above for references and a .pdf of the NCAR Tech Report.

Plots are for the more reliable southern hemisphere (SH) composite average hourly record type 31201 (data file ehp781102b) for the electron hemispheric power (Hpe, +) from 1978, and the ion hemispheric power (Hpi, .) from the NOAA SEM-2 satellites starting in 1998. The NOAA and DMSP hemispheric power (Hp) values from total (Hpt) or electron (Hpe) estimates have been adjusted to Hpe in record type 31100 (data file ehp781102c). The first estimates were put into the CEDAR Database in June 2005, with revisions in Oct 2006 and Oct 2007.

Summary Plots for NOAA Estimated Hemispheric Power

All NOAA data were replaced in June 2004 so the estimated electron and ion components available from NOAA-15 onwards could be explicitly added. The plots from 1998 to the present thus include ion hemispheric power estimates (Hpi) as dots.

Summary Plots for DMSP Estimated Hemispheric Power

The DMSP-F11 1992 estimated values were added in Oct 2003, but not replotted. (F11 was missing before in 1992.) F8-15 were recalibrated in June 2005, but plots only redone for 2004 and later.



-Revised 28 Feb 2008 by Barbara Emery