Instruments:Mesosphere-Lower Thermosphere Radars

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TIMED Mesosphere-Lower Thermosphere Radars

Contents


Contact Persons, Links and Acknowledgements

Analysis Contact Person: Scott Palo
Web Page: http://sisko.colorado.edu/TIMED/data/MLTR/
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: The MLT radar data analysis effort is funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) TIMED-CEDAR program grant number ATM-0000956.
[/timed/mltrloc.html LOCATIONS of all TIMED MLT Radars]

Individual Instruments, Contacts, Links, Acknowledgments, Locations and References

Adelaide MF radar contact Robert Vincent
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: The Adelaide MF radar is operated by the Atmospheric Physics Group of the University of Adelaide, with support from the Australian Research Council. It contributes data as part of the joint TIMED-CEDAR program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Science Foundation (NSF).

The Adelaide, Australia (34.56S, 138.48E; ?? m alt) 1.98 MHz MF radar has been in operation since 1983. On day 359 of 2001 at 89 km altitude, the apex magnetic coordinates were (28.2,-149.8) degrees. The magnetic inclination and declination angles were 48.0 deg and -6.4 deg. The magnetic local time at 0 Universal Time (UT) is about 0856 MLT. The solar local time (SLT) is UT plus 9 hours and 14 minutes (138.48/15.=9.232).

Ascension Island meteor radar contact Nicholas Mitchell
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: The Ascension Island meteor radar is operated by the University of Bath, UK with support from The Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council of the UK. It contributes data as part of the joint TIMED-CEDAR program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Science Foundation (NSF).

The Ascension Island (7.96 S, 14.38 W; alt 170 m) 43.50 MHz meteor radar has been in operation since August 1999. On day 359 of 2001 at 89 km altitude, the apex magnetic coordinates were (-19.6, 55.0) degrees. The magnetic inclination and declination angles were -39.3 deg and -16.8 deg. The magnetic local time at 0 Universal Time (UT) is about 2235 MLT. The solar local time (SLT) is UT minus 58 minutes (14.38/15=0.959).

Davis MF radar contact Robert Vincent
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: The Davis MF radar is operated by the Atmospheric Physics Group of the University of Adelaide, with support from the Australian Research Council. Logistical support is provided by the Australian Antarctic Division. It contributes data as part of the joint TIMED-CEDAR program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Science Foundation (NSF).

The Davis, Antarctica (68.60S, 77.97E; ~1 m alt) 1.94 MHz MF radar has been in operation since April 1994. On day 359 of 2001 at 89 km altitude, the apex magnetic coordinates were (64.1, 152.4) degrees. The magnetic inclination and declination angles were 81.7 deg and 21.7 deg. The magnetic local time at 0 Universal Time (UT) is about 0505 MLT. The solar local time (SLT) is UT plus 5 hours and 12 minutes (77.97/15.=5.198).

Esrange meteor radar contact Nicholas Mitchell
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: The Esrange meteor radar is operated by The University of Bath, UK with support from The Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council of the UK. It contributes data as part of the joint TIMED-CEDAR program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Science Foundation (NSF).

The Esrange, Sweden (67.89N, 21.08E; alt ??? m) 32.5 MHz meteor radar has been in operation since August 1999. On day 359 of 2001 at 89 km altitude, the apex magnetic coordinates were (64.8, 103.2) degrees. The magnetic inclination and declination angles were 77.2 deg and 5.8 deg. The magnetic local time at 0 Universal Time (UT) is about 0148 MLT. The solar local time (SLT) is UT plus 1 hour and 24 minutes (21.08/15=1.405).

Kauai MF radar contact Dennis Riggin
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: The Kauai, Hawaii MF radar is operated by Colorado Research Associates with initial support from the National Science Foundation (NSF) and current support from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as a Ground-Based Instrument for the TIMED satellite mission, which is part of the joint TIMED-CEDAR program of NASA and NSF.

The Kauai, Hawaii (22.0N, 159.3W; 2 m alt) 1.98 MHz MF radar has been in operation since 1990. On day 359 of 2001 at 89 km altitude, the apex magnetic coordinates were (22.6, -91.5) degrees. The magnetic inclination and declination angles were 38.6 deg and 10.1 deg. The magnetic local time at 0 Universal Time (UT) is about 1249 MLT. The solar local time (SLT) is UT minus 10 hours and 37 minutes (-159.3/15.=-10.620).

Obninsk meteor radar contact Yuri Portnyagin or Nikolai Makarov
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: The Obninsk meteor radar is operated by the Institute for Experimental Meteorology with support from the Russian Hydrometeorological Service. It contributes data as part of the joint TIMED-CEDAR program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Science Foundation (NSF).

The Obninsk, Russia (55.11N, 36.51E; ~172 m above msl) 33.3 MHz meteor radar has been in operation since 1964. On day 359 of 2001 at 89 km altitude, the apex magnetic coordinates were (51.2, 111.0) degrees. The magnetic inclination and declination angles were 70.5 deg and 8.3 deg. The magnetic local time at 0 Universal Time (UT) is about 0219 MLT. The solar local time (SLT) is UT plus 2 hours and 26 minutes (36.51/15=2.434). With no height ranging, the observations come approximately from 95 km.

Platteville MF radar contact Denise Thorsen or Alan Manson
Web Page: http://grison.colorado.edu/Radar_Stations/
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: The Platteville MF radar is operated collaboratively between the University of Colorado (Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, CIRES) and the University of Saskatchewan (Institute of Space and Atmospheric Studies, ISAS) with support from the National Science Foundation (NSF) of the USA and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada. It contributes data as part of the joint TIMED-CEDAR program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and NSF.

The Platteville 2 MHz MF radar is located in Colorado, USA (40.18N, 104.7W; 1505 m alt), and has been in operation since December 1999, with a data gap from March to July 2000 because of system problems. On day 359 of 2001 at 89 km altitude, the apex magnetic coordinates were (49.3, -39.6) degrees. The magnetic inclination and declination angles were 67.2 deg and 10.0 deg. The magnetic local time at 0000 Universal Time (UT) is about 1617 MLT. The solar local time (SLT) is UT minus 6 hours and 59 minutes (-104.7/15=-6.98).

Poker Flat MF radar contact Yasuhiro Murayama
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: The Poker Flat MF radar is operated by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Japan, with collaboration with the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska at Fairbanks. It contributes data as part of the joint TIMED-CEDAR program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Science Foundation (NSF).
REFERENCE: Murayama, Y., K. Igarashi, D. Rice, B. Watkins, R. Collins, K. Mizutani, Y. Saito, and S. Kainuma, Medium Frequency Radars in Japan and Alaska, for Upper Atmosphere Observations, IEICE Trans., E83-B, 1996-2003, 2000. (http://search.ieice.org/2000/pdf/e83-b_9_1996.pdf)

The Poker Flat, Alaska (65.126 N, 147.495 W; alt 208 m) 2.43 MHz MF radar has been in operation since 1998. On day 359 of 2001 at 89 km altitude, the apex magnetic coordinates were (65.4, -95.5) degrees. The magnetic inclination and declination angles were 77.4 deg and 24.1 deg. The magnetic local time at 0 Universal Time (UT) is about 1233 MLT. The solar local time (SLT) is UT minus 9 hours and 50 minutes (-147.495/15.=-9.833).

Rarotonga MF radar contact Dennis Riggin
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: The Rarotonga MF radar is operated by Colorado Research Associates with initial support from the National Science Foundation (NSF) and current support from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as a Ground-Based Instrument for the TIMED satellite mission, which is part of the joint TIMED-CEDAR program of NASA and NSF.

The Rarotonga, Cook Islands (21.21S, 159.77W; 2 m alt) 1.98 MHz MF radar has been in operation since 2000. On day 359 of 2001 at 89 km altitude, the apex magnetic coordinates were (-22.9, -84.9) degrees. The magnetic inclination and declination angles were -39.5 deg and 13.5 deg. The magnetic local time at 0 Universal Time (UT) is about 1316 MLT. The solar local time (SLT) is UT minus 10 hours and 39 minutes (-159.77/15.=-10.651).

Rothera MF radar contacts Dennis Riggin and Martin Jarvis
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: The Rothera MF radar is jointly operated by Colorado Research Associates and the British Antarctic Survey with support from the Division of Polar Programs at the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the UK Natural Environment Council. It contributes data as part of the joint TIMED-CEDAR program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and NSF.

The Rothera, Antarctica (67.57S, 68.12W; ~5 m alt) 1.98 MHz MF radar was in operation 1997-1998, and was reinstalled in 2002. The data are noisy. On day 359 of 2001 at 89 km altitude, the apex magnetic coordinates were (-52.6, 7.6) degrees. The magnetic inclination and declination angles were -59.9 deg and 20.5. deg. The magnetic local time at 0000 Universal Time (UT) is about 1925 MLT. The solar local time (SLT) is UT minus 4 hours and 32 minutes (-68.12/15.=-4.5413).

Saskatoon MF radar contact Alan Manson or Chris Meek
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: The Saskatoon MF radar is operated by the University of Saskatchewan (Institute of Space and Atmospheric Studies) with support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC). It contributes data as part of the joint TIMED-CEDAR program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Science Foundation (NSF).

The Saskatoon 2 MHz MF radar is located in the province of Saskatchewan in Canada (52.21N, 107.12W; 519 m alt), and has been in operation since 1978. On day 359 of 2001 at 89 km altitude, the apex magnetic coordinates were (60.8, -45.1) degrees. The magnetic inclination and declination angles were 76.0 deg and 13.4 deg. The magnetic local time at 0 Universal Time (UT) is about 1555 MLT. The solar local time (SLT) is UT minus 7 hours and 8 minutes (-107.12/15=-7.141).

Tromsø MF radar contact Alan Manson or Chris Meek or Chris Hall or Satonori Nozawa
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: The Tromsø MF radar is operated by the University of Tromsø (Tromsø Geophysical Observatory) and the University of Saskatchewan (Institute of Space and Atmospheric Studies, ISAS) with support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada. It contributes data as part of the joint TIMED-CEDAR program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Science Foundation (NSF).

The Tromsø, Norway 2.78 MHz MF radar at (69.5847 N, 19.2194 E; 86 m alt) has been in operation since 1987. On day 359 of 2001 at 89 km altitude, the apex magnetic coordinates were (66.6, 103.0) degrees. The magnetic inclination and declination angles were 78.0 deg and 5.0 deg. The magnetic local time at 0 Universal Time (UT) is about 0147 MLT. The solar local time (SLT) is UT plus 1 hour and 17 min (19.22/15=1.281).

Wakkanai Japan MF radar contact Yasuhiro Murayama
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: The Wakkanai MF radar is operated by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (previously Communications Research Laboratory, Japan. It contributes data as part of the joint TIMED-CEDAR program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Science Foundation (NSF).
REFERENCE: Murayama, Y., K. Igarashi, D. Rice, B. Watkins, R. Collins, K. Mizutani, Y. Saito, and S. Kainuma, Medium Frequency Radars in Japan and Alaska, for Upper Atmosphere Observations, IEICE Trans., E83-B, 1996-2003, 2000. (http://search.ieice.org/2000/pdf/e83-b_9_1996.pdf)

The Wakkanai, Japan (45.36N, 141.81E; alt ~10 m) 1.9585 MHz MF radar has been in operation since 1996. On day 359 of 2001 at 89 km altitude, the apex magnetic coordinates were (38.9,-146.6) degrees. The magnetic inclination and declination angles were 59.8 deg and -9.6 deg. The magnetic local time at 0 Universal Time (UT) is about 0909 MLT. The solar local time (SLT) is UT plus 9 hours and 27 minutes (141.81/15.=9.454).

Yamagawa Japan MF radar contact Yasuhiro Murayama
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: The Yamagawa MF radar is operated by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (previously Communications Research Laboratory), Japan. It contributes data as part of the joint TIMED-CEDAR program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Science Foundation (NSF).
REFERENCE: Murayama, Y., K. Igarashi, D. Rice, B. Watkins, R. Collins, K. Mizutani, Y. Saito, and S. Kainuma, Medium Frequency Radars in Japan and Alaska, for Upper Atmosphere Observations, IEICE Trans., E83-B, 1996-2003, 2000. ([http://search.ieice.org/2000/pdf/e83-b_9_1996.pdf http://search.ieice.org/2000/pdf/e83-b_9_1996.pdf
)

The Yamagawa, Japan (31.20N, 130.62E; alt ~70 m) 1.9550 MHz MF radar has been in operation since 1994. On day 359 of 2001 at 89 km altitude, the apex magnetic coordinates were (25.1,-157.3) degrees. The magnetic inclination and declination angles were 44.7 deg and -5.6 deg. The magnetic local time at 0 Universal Time (UT) is about 0826 MLT. The solar local time (SLT) is UT plus 8 hours and 42 minutes (130.62/15.=8.708).

Analysis Description

The Mesosphere-Lower Thermosphere Radars (MLTR) organized for the TIMED-CEDAR program provide horizontal and sometimes 'vertical' neutral winds to the processing center at the University of Colorado. The neutral 'vertical' wind is contaminated by the horizontal wind. (Version 4 eliminates 'vertical' winds from Poker Flat.) The winds are binned in UT hour bins for 4 consecutive days, where the UT day number given is the first of the 4 days. A total of 4*24=96 possible hours of data are used. If there are less than 72 hours (3/4 of the time), then the harmonic analysis fit is not made. Otherwise, a mean, 24-h and 12-h fit is performed, where the phase is kept in UT hours in the netCDF files provided to the TIMED Data Center at the Applied Physics Lab at the John Hopkins University. These UT phases have been converted into SLT (solar local time) hours for the CEDAR Database, where SLT = UT + glon/15. The number of hours available (code 925) is the maximum number of hours available in any one direction. Most of the time, the number of hours available is the same in all directions, but in some cases, it can be less. (Obnisk north can have less hours than east, and the Esrange meteor radar can have different hours in north than east).

Each mean, amplitude and phase have a corresponding error bar which is the square root of the covariance to the fit, or the standard deviation. A total residual error bar is also calculated for the overall fit as
Residual = sqrt( sum_over_N (Ui-Uobs)**2 )
for the eastward, northward, and sometimes upward observations, where only the horizontal directions are found, the vertical wind is assumed to be zero in converting line-of-sight velocities to the horizontal.

There are several types of MLTRs in the TIMED-CEDAR program. References for the instruments, analyses using the radars, and comparisons with other satellite or ground-based instruments can be found from /timed/timed.html or http://sisko.colorado.edu/TIMED/data/MLTR/

Users interested in the hourly data should contact the analysis and instrument contact persons separately.

Summary Plots of the Harmonic Analysis of the MLT Radars for TIMED

These data are also available from the http://sisko.colorado.edu/TIMED/data/MLTR/ site and from the TIMED site at APL at http://www.timed.jhuapl.edu.
The neutral 'vertical' wind is contaminated by the horizontal wind.

Original Wind Data Plots

Some TIMED MLT Radars have their original hourly or 30 min wind data in the CEDAR Database which are plotted and can be accessed below.

Older Data

Several TIMED MLT Radars have earlier data sets in the CEDAR Database which are plotted and can be accessed below.

Other MLT Radars in the CEDAR DB

Several other MLT Radars have earlier and recent data sets in the CEDAR Database which are plotted and can be accessed below.


-Revised 04 Jun 2006 by Barbara Emery