Timed:GBI General References

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Ground Based Instrument General References for TIMED

This is a list of general references for various GBI/TIMED instruments. The references can describe an instrument, a technique, or data from some instrument. These references are both out of date, and incomplete. Please send corrections.

IS Radar References

Alcaydé, D., editor, Incoherent Scatter Theory, Practice and Science, Technical Report 97/53 from a collection of lectures given in Cargese, Corsica, 1995, EISCAT Scientific Association, 314 pp, November 1997.
Blanc, M., Electrodynamics of the ionosphere from incoherent scatter: A review, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 31, 137-164, 1979.
de la Beaujardiere, O., R. Vondrak and M. Baron, Radar observations of electric fields and currents associated with auroral arcs, J. Geophys. Res., 82, pp 5051-5062, 1977.
Evans, J.V., Theory and practice of ionosphere study by Thomson scatter radar, Proc. IEEE, 57, 496-530, 1969.
Evans, J.V., Incoherent scatter contributions to studies of the dynamics of the lower thermosphere, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., 16, 195-216, 1978.
Evans, J.V., W.L. Oliver, Jr., and J.E. Salah, Thermospheric properties as deduced from incoherent scatter measurements, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 41, 259-278, 1979.
Lejeune, G., A prgram library for incoherent scatter calculation, EISCAT Tech Note 79/18, Kiruna, Sweden, 1979.
Wickwar, V. B., C. Lathuillere, W. Kofman and G. Lejeune, Elevated electron temperatures in the auroral E layer measured with the Chatanika radar, J. Geophys. Res., 86, 4721-4730, 1981.

HF Radar References

R. A. Greenwald, K. B. Baker, R. A. Hutchins, and C. Hanuise, An HF phased-array radar for studying small-scale structure in the high-latitude ionosphere, Radio Sci., 20, 63-79, 1985.
R. A. Greenwald, et al., DARN/SUPERDARN, a global view of the dynamics of high-latitude convecton, Space Science Reviews, 71, 761-796, 1995.
J. M. Ruohoniemi, R. A. Greenwald, K. B. Baker, and J. P. Villain, Drift motions of small-scale irregularities in the high-latitude F region: An experimental comparison with plasma drift motions, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 4553-4564, 1987.
Villain, J. P., et al., HF ray tracing at high latitudes using measured meridional electron density distributions, Radio Sci., 19, 359, 1984.

MLT Radar References

S. K. Avery, R. A. Vincent, A. Phillips, A. H. Manson and G. J. Fraser, High latitude tidal behavior in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 51, pp 595-608, 1989.
S. K. Avery, J. P. Avery, and T.A. Valentic, A new meteor echo detection and collection system: Christmas Island mesospheric wind measurements, Radio Sci., 25, pp 657-670, 1990.
Clark, R. R. and J. E. Salah, Propagation of the solar semidiurnal tide in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere at mid latitudes, J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 96, No. A2, pp. 1129-1133.
Clark, R. R., The quasi 2-day wave at Durham (43 D.N.): solar and magnetic effects, J.A.T.P., Vol. 51, No. 7/8, pp. 617-622, 1989.
Clark, R. R., Upper atmosphere observations of waves and tides with the UNH Meteor Radar System at Durham 43 D. N. (1977, 1978 and 1979), Journal of Atmosperic and Terrestrial Physics, Vol. 45, No. 8/9, pp. 621-627, 1983.
Clark, R. R., Upper Atmospheric Winds January, 1977 to October, 1979. UNH Meteor Radar System at Durham (43 D. N., 71 D. W.), Technical Report No. 1, August 1, 1980, Antenna System Lab., UNH, ASL-MW-180.
G. J. Fraser, Summer circulation in the Antarctic middle atmosphere, J.Atmos.Terr.Phys., 46, pp 143-146, 1984a.
G. J. Fraser, Partial-reflection spaced antenna wind measurements, Chapter 15 of Ground-based techniques, Handbook for middle atmosphere program, Vol 13, (Ed.) R. A. Vincent, ICSU Committee on Solar- Terrestrial Physics, University of Illinois, Urbana, 1984.
G. J. Fraser, Monthly mean winds in the mesosphere at 44S and 78S, Pure and Appl. Geophys, 130, pp 291-301, 1989.
G. J. Fraser and Usman Khan, Semi-diurnal variations in the time scale of irregularities near the Antarctic summer mesopause, Radio Science, 25, pp 997-1003, 1990.
G. J. Fraser, R. A. Vincent, A. H. Manson, C. E. Meek and R. R. Clark, Inter-annual variability of tides in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 51, pp 555-568, 1989.
Groves, G. V., A theory for determining upper atmosphere winds from radar observations on meteor trails, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 16, 344-356, 1959.
Manson, A. H. C.E. Meek, M. Massebeuf, J. L. Fellous, W. G. Elford, R. A. Vincent, R. L. Craig, R. G. Roper, S. Avery, B. B. Balsley, G. J. Fraser, M. J. Smith, R. R. Clark, S. Kato, T. Tsuda and A. Ebel, Mean winds of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (60-110 km): A global distribution from radar systems (MF, meteor, VHF), Adv. Space Res., Vol. 5, No. 7, pp 135-144, 1985.
A. H. Manson, C. E. Meek, H. Teitelbaum, F. Vial, R. Schminder, D. Kurschner, M. J. Smith, G. J. Fraser, and R. R. Clark, Climatologies of semi-diurnal and diurnal tides in the middle atmosphere (70-110 km) at middle latitudes (40-50), J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 51, pp 579-593, 1989.
A. H. Manson, C. E. Meek, and R. A. Vincent, Comparison between referenced atmosphere winds and radar winds from selected locations, Adv. Space Res., Vol 10, No. 12, pp 233-244, 1990.
A. H. Manson, C. E. Meek, R. Schminder, D. Kurschner, R. R. Clark, H. G. Muller, R. A. Vincent, A. Phillips, G. J. Fraser, W. Singer, and E. S. Kazimirovsky, Tidal winds from the MLT global radar network during the first LTCS campaign -- September 1987, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 52, pp 175-183, 1990.
A. H. Manson, C. E. Meek, E. Fleming, S. Chandra, R. A. Vincent, A. Phillips, S. K. Avery, G. J. Fraser, M. J. Smith, J. L. Fellous, and M. Massebeuf, Comparisons between satellite-derived gradient winds and radar-derived winds from the CIRA-86, J. Atmos. Sci., 48, pp 411-428, 1991.
A. H. Manson, C. E. Meek, S. K. Avery, G. J. Fraser, R. A. Vincent, A. Phillips, R. R. Clark, R. Schminder, D. Kurschner, and E. S. Kazimirovsky, Tidal winds from the mesosphere, lower thermosphere global radar network during the second LTCS campaign: December 1988, J. Geophys. Res., 96, pp 1117-1127, 1991.
A. Phillips and R. A. Vincent, Radar observations of prevailing winds and waves in the southern hemisphere mesosphere and lower thermosphere, Pure and Applied Geophys., 130, pp 303-318, 1989.
R. A. Vincent, T. Tsuda and S. Kato, Asymmetries in mesospheric tidal structure, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 51, pp 609-616, 1989.

Imager References

M. Mendillo, J. Baumgardner, J. Aarons, J. Foster and J. Klobuchar, Coordinated optical and radio studies of ionospheric disturbances: Initial results from Millstone Hill, Annales Geophys., 5A, 543-550, 1987.
J. W. Meriwether, High latitude airglow observations of correlated short-term fluctuations in the hydroxyl Meinel 8-3 band intensity and rotational temperature, Planet. Space Sci, 43, pp 1211-1221, 1975.
W. R. Pendleton, M. J. Taylor and L. C. Gardner, Terdiurnal oscillations in OH Meinel rotational temperatures for fall conditions at northern mid-latitude sites, Geophys. Res. Lett., in press, 2000.
M. J. Taylor and W. R. Pendleton, CEDAR Mesospheric Temperature Mapper for Investigating Short Period Gravity Waves, The CEDAR Post, No. 29, pp 31-32, Oct 1996.

4 Channel Photometer References

Hecht, J. H., A. B. Christensen, D. J. Strickland, R. R. Meier, Deducing composition and incident electron spectra from ground-based auroral optical measurements: Variations in oxygen density, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 13,553-13,563, 1989.
Hecht, J. H., A. B. Christensen, D. J. Strickland, T. Majeed, R. L. Gattinger, A. Vallance Jones, A comparison between auroral particle charateristics and atmospheric composition inferred from analyzing optical emission measurements alone and in combination with incoherent scatter radar measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 33-44, 1999.
Hecht, J. H., D. L. McKenzie, A. B. Christensen, D. J. Strickland, J. P. Thayer and J. Watermann, Simultaneous observations of lower thermospheric composition change during moderate auroral activity from Kangerlussuaq and Narsarsuaq, Greenland, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 27,109-27,118, 2000.
Hedin, A. E., Extension of the MSIS thermospheric model into the middle and lower atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res, 96, 1159-1172, 1991.
Strickland, D. J., D. L. Book, T. P. Coffey and J. A. Fedder, Transport equation techniques for the deposition of auroral electrons, J. Geophys. Res., 81, 2755-2764, 1976.
Strickland, D. J., J. R. Jasperse and J. A. Whalen, Dependence of auroral FUV emissions on the incident electron spectrum and neutral atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 8051-8062, 1983.
Strickland, D. J., R. R. Meier, J. H. Hecht and A. B. Christensen, Deducing composition and incident electron spectra from ground-based auroral optical measurements: Theory and model results, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 13,527-13,539, 1989.

Michelson Interferometer References

Azeem, S., S. E. Palo, G. G. Sivjee, D. Thorsen and C. She, Co-located intercomparison of radar and optical wind and temperature measurements, Proceedings, AGU 2001 Fall Meeting, SA418-0733, 2001.
Coxon, J. A., Optimum molecular constants and term values for the X2Pi(v<=5) and A2Sigma+(v<=3) states of OH, Canadian J. Phys., 58, 933-949, 1980.
Nelson Jr., D. D., A. Schiffmann and D. J. Nesbit, H+O3 Fourier-transform infrared emission and laser absorption studies of the OH (X2Pi) radical: An experimental dipole moment function and state-to-state calculation of Einstein A coefficients, J. Chem. Phys., 93, 7003, 1990.
Sivjee, G. G. and R. M. Hamwey, Temperature and chemistry of the polar mesopause OH, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 4663-4672, 1987.
Sivjee, G. G. and R. L. Walterscheid, Six-hour zonally symmetric tidal oscillations of the winter mesopause over the South Pole Station, Planet. Space Sci., 42, 447-453, 1994.
Sivjee, G. G., R. L. Walterscheid and D. J. McEwen, Planetary wave disturbances in the Arctic winter mesopause over Eureka (80 N), Planet. Space Sci., 42, 973-986.
Walterscheid, R. L. and G. G. Sivjee, Zonally symmetric oscillations observed in the airglow from South Pole station, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 3645-3654, 2001.

CCD Spectrophotometer References

Coxon, J. A. and S. C. Foster, Rotational analyses of hydroxyl vibration-rotation emission bands : Molecular constants for OH X2Pi, 6 <= v <= 10, Can. J. Phys., 60, 41-48, 1982.
Mies, F. H., J. Mol. Spectrosc., 53, 150, 1974.
Sivjee, G. G. and R. M. Hamwey, Temperature and chemistry of the polar mesopause OH, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 4663-4672, 1987.
Sivjee, G. G. and D. Shen, Auroral optical emissions during the solar magnetic cloud event of October 1995, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 7431-7437, 1997.
Sivjee, G. G., D. Shen, J.-H. Yee and G. J. Romick, Variations, with peak emission altitude, in auroral )2 atmospheric (1,1)/(0,1) ratio and its relation to other auroral emissions, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 28,003-28,018, 1999.
Walterscheid, R. L. and G. G. Sivjee, Zonally symmetric oscillations observed in the airglow from South Pole station, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 3645-3654, 2001.

Lidar References

Press, W. H., Flannery, B. P., Teukolsky and W. T. Vetterling, "Numerical Recipes, the art of scientific computing", p. 425, The Cambridge University Press, 1986.
She, C. Y., H. Latifi, J. R. Yu, R. J. Alvarez II, R. E. Bills and C.S. Gardner, Two-Frequency Lidar Technique for Mesospheric Na Temperature Measurements, Geophys. Res. Lett., 17, 929-932, 1990.
She, C. Y., J. R. Yu, H. Latifi and R. E. Bills, High-Spectral-Resolution Fluorescence Lidar for Mesopheric Sodium Temperature Measurements, Appl. Opt., 31, 2095-2106, 1992.
Chen, H., C. Y. She and Eric Korevaar, Na Vapor Dispersive Faraday Filter, Opt. Lett. 18, 1019-1021, 1993.
She, C. Y., and J. R. Yu, Doppler-Free Saturation Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Na Atoms for Atmospheric Applications, Appl. Opt., 34, 1063-1075, 1995.
Yu, J. R. and C. Y. She, Climatology of a mid-latitude mesopause region observed by a lidar at Ft. Collins, CO (40.6N, 105W), J. Geophys. Res., 100, 7441-7452, 1995.
She, C. Y. and U. von Zahn, The concept of two-level mesopause: Support through new lidar observation, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 5855-5863, 1998.
She, C. Y., S. W. Thiel and D. A. Krueger, Observed episodic warming at 86 and 100 km between 1990 and 1997: Effects of Mount Pinatubo eruption, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 497-500, 1998.
Williams, B. P., C. Y. She, and R. G. Roble, Seasonal climatology of the nighttime tidal perturbation of temperature in the midlatitude mesopause region, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 3301 - 3304, 1998.
She, C. Y., and R. P. Lowe, Seasonal temperature variations in the mesopause region at mid-latitude: comparison of lidar and hydroxyl rotational temperatures using WINDII/UARD OH height profiles, J. Atmo. Solar-Terr. Physics, 60, 1573-1583, 1998.
Krueger, D. A., and C. Y. She, Observed "long-term" temperature change in a midlatitude mesopause region in response to external perturbation, Earth, Planets and Space, 51, 809-814, 1999.
Chen, S. S., Z. L. Hu, M. A. White, D. A. Krueger and C. Y. She, Lidar observations of seasonal variation of diurnal mean temperature in the mesopause region over Fort Collins, CO (41oN, 105oW), J. Geophys. Res., 105, 12,371-12,379, 2000.

Fabry-Perot Spectrometer References

Conde, M., Deriving wavelength spectra from fixed-gap single etalon Fabry-Perot Spectrometer fringe images, Applied Aptics, in press, 2002.
Hernandez, G., 'Fabry-Perot Interferometers', Cambridge University Press, 343 pp., 1988, second printing with corrections.
Smith, R. W. and G. Hernandez, Upper thermospheric temperatures at South Pole, Adv. Space. Res., 16(5), 31-39, 1995.

--Revised 05 Oct 2004 by emery@ucar.edu